A comprehensive review of wolf-human encounters in Canada and Alaska from 1915-2001 was compiled by Mark E. McNay of Alaska's Fish & Wildlife bureau in 2002. None were fatal. Of the 80 described encounters, 39 involved aggressive behavior from apparently healthy wolves and 12 from animals confirmed to be rabid. A similar, 1944 report compiled by Young & Goldman, reviewed 30 accounts occurring before 1900, including six that may have been fatal. "Whether these reports are the product of a fertile imagination or are truth is difficult to determine," Young wrote in a preface, according to McNay.
A non-fatal attack in 2000 involving a 6-year-old boy in Icy Bay, Alaska was considered so unusual that it was reported in newspapers throughout the entire United States.
Possibly the first fatal attack in modern North America occurred in 2005, when Kenton Joel Carnegie was killed in Saskatchewan, Canada. Two scientists who visited the scene concurred that Carnegie had probably been killed by a black bear, or possibly a wolf. But more than a year later, McNay, the Alaskan biologists, reviewed photos of the scene. His subsequent testimony convinced a local jury that Carnegie had in fact, been killed by wolves that had been habituated to humans. In 2010, a woman was killed whilst jogging near Chignik Lake in Alaska. At least two other relatively recent fatalities in North America involved captive wolves.
There were no written records of wolf attacks on humans prior to the European colonization of the Americas, though the oral history of some Native American tribes suggests that wolves occasionally did kill humans. Tribes living in woodlands feared wolves more than their tundra-dwelling counterparts, as they could encounter wolves suddenly and at close quarters.